The elliptical machine is one of the best options for those who have joints issues. It perfectly trains the cardiovascular system without overloading the musculoskeletal system.
Training on the elliptical develops stamina, strengthens the muscles and burns fat.
As training on the elliptical involves not only legs but arms as well, beginners can successfully strengthen their upper chest muscles.
Depending on your goals, the duration of your training session on the elliptical can vary.
In the beginning adjust the height of the handles and pace length. Stand up on the machine. The closer to the edge of the pedals you are, the more load for your body.
Keep in mind that the main emphasis should be on your heels while your toes are free, your knees should be bent slightly. Don't look down.
Now start moving forward. If you want to involve your arms and back in the workout, grab the handles. After a while, you could change the type of movement and try walking backwards. It puts more load on the major gluteal muscles.
To strengthen the quadriceps and calves, lean your body forward and keep going. One more difficult but highly effective movement: squat down as much as possible, as if you were trying to sit down, and start pedaling.
The elliptical trainer barely affects the small joints, that's why it suits people with musculoskeletal problems as well as those with a low fitness level.
The best way to estimate the necessary load is your heart rate (cardiac rate). To burn fat you should workout at a rate of 65-75% of maximum. You can calculate your maximum cardiac rate with the following formula: 220 minus your age.